To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Clothing the elite? Patterns of textile production and consumption in ancient Sudan and Nubia In A.
Ulanowska, M. Siennicka, and M. Grupa eds. Elsa Yvanez. Agata Ulanowska. Patterns of textile production and consumption in ancient Sudan and Nubia. Examples from Poland Continually in- logical fabrics, textile tools and equipment, remains of work- creasing interest in textile studies has focused on scientific ex- ing areas and dye-works, traces of various stages of textile amination of archaeological and historical textiles and fibres, manufacture, as well as written and iconographic sources.
These studies have developed into new directions Bronze Age and the 19th century CE. Nosch et al. Kristiansen For the complete list of the participants et al. Ulanowska et al. The Nubia, Elsa Yvanez presents abundant evidence of the tex- conference was held on the 21st and 22nd June in the tile tradition developed in the kingdom of Meroe in Nubia Polish Academy of Sciences, Branch in Lodz. Fabrics and clothing discovered in graves The peer-reviewed contributions of the present volume and depicted on reliefs and statues, implements, and different are arranged geo-chronologically.
It is suggested ents in her paper, The Early and Middle Bronze Age Textile that the Meroitic textile industry reflected the social complex- Tools from the Aeolian Islands Italyan overview of textile ity and the ethnic diversity of the kingdom. It suggests that certain male Roman ed from the use of plant fibres, such as full-length flax, while authors had actual technical knowledge of textile manufac- very heavy implements were used primarily for plying yarns ture, and this may be a result of sharing in their childhood or twining.
This can be demonstrated Erimi Laonin tou Porakou. A Textile Community of Practice through literary descriptions of textile activities.Fabric construction involves the conversion of yarns, and sometimes fibres, into a fabric having characteristics determined by the materials and methods employed. Most fabrics are presently produced by some method of interlacing, such as weaving or knitting.
Weaving, currently the major method of fabric production, includes the basic weaves, plain or tabby, twilland satinand the fancy weaves, including pileJacquard, dobby, and gauze.
Knitted fabrics are rapidly increasing in importance and include weft types and the warp types, raschel and tricot. Other interlaced fabrics include netlaceand braid.
Nonwoven fabrics are gaining importance and include materials produced by felting and bonding. Laminating processes are also increasing in importance, and fairly recent developments include needle weaving and the sewing-knitting process.
STeP by OEKO-TEX®
Woven fabrics are made of yarns interlaced in a regular order called a binding system, or weave. Weaving is the process of combining warp and weft components to make a woven structure. The components need neither be parallel to each other nor cross each other at right angles, but most woven structures are composed of two sets of components, both flexible and crossing at right angles. Weaving is differentiated from warp and weft knitting, braidingand net making in that these latter processes make use of only one set of elements.
In addition, there are geometrical differences, one of the most significant being the small angles through which the components of a woven structure are, in general, bent, in contrast with the components of other structures. Weaving is a widely used constructional method because it is cheap, basically simple, and adaptable. Woven fabrics have valuable characteristics resulting partly from the geometrical conformation of their components and partly from the fact that the components are held in position not by rigid bonding but by friction set up at the areas where they make contact.
Woven fabrics are used in household, appareland industrial textiles. Textile designers can produce a very large variety of cloths by their selection of yarns, finishing processes, and binding systems. Yarns vary in thickness, smoothness, fibre content, twist, and colour, all of which have a profound influence on the finished cloth. Finishing processes range from such simple treatment as brushing up the nap on a woven fabric to such a complicated chemical process as that employed to change opaque cotton fabric to transparent, permanently stiffened organdy.
The binding system, or weave, however, is the basic factor in determining the character of a woven fabric. The three basic systems are plain or tabby, twill, and satin.
In complex binding systems, the basic weaves are combined or enriched by hand manipulation or mechanical loom attachments; these include multiple-plane, pile, inlaid, and gauze weaves. Regardless of the binding system, other devices—manipulation of warp spacing, beating in, or tension—can be used to alter the appearance of any weave, to make it looser or more compact, to make it more or less regular.
The draft is a plan on graph paper showing at least one repeat or weave unit of the fabric to be woven. This information enables the weaver or mill specialist to plot the drawing in of the warp, the tie up of harnesses to the shedding mechanism, and the shedding order.
Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Production of fabric Fabric construction involves the conversion of yarns, and sometimes fibres, into a fabric having characteristics determined by the materials and methods employed.
Woven fabrics Woven fabrics are made of yarns interlaced in a regular order called a binding system, or weave. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture.
The fibres can be of countless origins, but can be grouped into four main categories. Natural fibres, with the exception of silk, have a relatively short fibre length, measured in centimetres. Silk and man-made fibres have on the other hand very long fibre lengths filaments ranging from hundreds of metres to kilometres long. Plant fibres consists of cellulosic material, normally derived from cotton, linen, hemp or bamboo, but more or less any plant with extractable cellulose can be used.
Cotton is by far the most commonly used plant fibre and the cultivation of cotton is enormously resource-intensive, with high inputs of water, pesticides, insecticides and fertilisers leaving a large toxic footprint where grown, if not cultivated organically or under specific sustainable conditions.
Animal fibres consist of proteins. Wool and silk are the most commonly used fibres from this group, but the wool can come from a number of different animals. In order to make animals grow faster and produce higher yields of wool, pesticides and insecticides are used to prevent disease. Dipping is a common practice to control parasites in sheep farming, making use of both organic phosphates as well as synthetic pyrethroid.
After the wool fibres have been sheared they are treated with chemicals during the scouring and washing process.
Man-made fibres such as viscose rayon or lyocell are based on cellulosic raw material, normally from wood pulp. They are heavily treated with chemicals before the new fibre is spun. The whole process of producing fibres from wood pulp is very resource-intensive, involving the use of several hazardous substances. Synthetic fibres are made from monomers sourced from fossil oil feedstocks, which are subsequently polymerised into different fibres. Given all the possible monomers that can be made from a synthetic feedstock, the possible combinations are endless.
However the most common synthetic fibre is polyester, followed by polyamide, polyacrylic and aramide. Depending on the monomer used to produce the fibre, an endless number of chemicals may be used in the process.
For some of the synthetic fibres such as polyester, dyeing can be accomplished already when the fibre is manufactured. When the fibre has been harvested or produced the next step is to spin the fibres into a yarn. It is easy to believe that this step, which is a mechanical one, uses no chemicals.
But in order to increase the strength of the fibre, increase fibre cohesion and reduce friction during the spinning process, spinning oils are added. The core of textile manufacture is fabric production. Fabrics can be created in many different ways, the most common being weaving, knitting or through production of non-woven fabrics. To prevent the yarn from breaking during these processes, it is important to strengthen the yarn and reduce friction.
Sizing chemicals and lubricants are therefore added. Pre-treatment processes can be carried out with fibres, yarns or fabrics. This is done in a multi-step process. Exactly which steps the fabric goes through depends on the type, or blend of fibre, and how it will be treated afterwards.
In some cases pre-treated fabrics are manufactured for later garment dyeing. During dyeing and printing both hazardous chemicals and dyestuffs are used. Dyes used for dyeing, can also be used for printing, but must then undergo the same fixation and washings steps as after the dyeing process.
The most common way to print a fabric in full width is to use pigment prints, where the pigments stick to a surface using polymeric resin or a binder. No washing processes are needed. For garment printingplastisol printing is very common. The PVC-based paste often contains hazardous chemicals, such as phthalates, but there are also alternatives based on acrylate or polyurethane.Register Now. Garment production is an organised activity consisting of sequencial processes such as laying, marking, cutting, stitching, checking, finishing, pressing and packaging.
Garment production is an organized activity consisting of sequential processes such as laying, marking, cutting, stitching, checking, finishing, pressing and packaging.
This is a process of converting raw materials into finished products. It will be difficult to maintain the industry if production is not, up to the mark if the preproduction phase of preparation of material is not properly carried out. Ready to wear apparel or garment manufacturing involves many processing steps, beginning with the idea or design concept and ending with a finished product.
Garment factories receive fabric from overseas textile manufacturers in large bolts with cardboard or plastic centre tubes or in piles or bags.
The fabric typically arrives in steel commercial shipping containers and is unloaded with a forklift. Garment factories often have a warehouse or dedicated area to store fabric between arrival and manufacturing. Fabric Relaxing. This step is necessary because the material is continually under tension throughout the various stages of the textile manufacturing process, including weaving, dyeing, and other finishing processes.
The relaxing process allows fabrics to shrink so that further shrinkage during customer use is minimized. Garment manufacturers perform the relaxing process either manually or mechanically. Manual fabric relaxing typically entails loading the bolt of fabric on a spinner and manually feeding the material through a piece of equipment that relieves tension in the fabric as it is pulled through.
Mechanical fabric relaxing performs this same process in an automated manner. Many garment manufacturers will also integrate quality assurance into this process to ensure that the quality of the fabric meets customer standards. This step is performed by manually spot-checking each bolt of fabric using a backlit surface to identify manufacturing defects such as colour inconsistency or flaws in the material.
Fabrics that fail to meet customer standards are returned to the textile manufacturer. Spreading, Form Layout, and Cutting After the fabric has been relaxed, it is transferred to the spreading and cutting area of the garment manufacturing facility. The fabric is first to cut into uniform plies and then spread either manually or using a computer-controlled system in preparation for the cutting process. The fabric is spread to:. The number of plies in each spread is dependent on the fabric type, spreading method, cutting equipment, and size of the garment order.
Next, garment forms—or patterns—are laid out on top of the spread, either manually or programmed into an automated cutting system. Lastly, the fabric is cut to the shape of the garment forms using either manually operated cutting equipment or a computerized cutting system. Laying Laying of paper pattern helps one to plan the placement of the pattern pieces in a tentative manner.
This is the major operation of the cutting room when they spread and cut into garments. Of all the operations in the cutting room, this is the most decisive, because once the fabric has been cut, very little can be done to rectify serious defects.
Embroidery and screen printing are two processes that occur only if directly specified by the customer; therefore, these processes are commonly subcontracted to off-site facilities.
Embroidery is performed using automated equipment, often with many machines concurrently embroidering the same pattern on multiple garments. Each production line may include between 10 and 20 embroidery stations.
Customers may request embroidery to put logos or other embellishments on garments. Screen printing is the process of applying paint-based graphics to fabric using presses and textile dryers. Specifically, screen printing involves sweeping a rubber blade across a porous screen, transferring ink through a stencil and onto the fabric. The screen printed pieces of fabric are then dried to set the ink.
This process may have varying levels of automation or may largely be completed at manually operated stations. Like embroidery, screen printing is wholly determined by the customer and may be requested to put logos or other graphics on garments or to print brand and size information in place of affixing tags.
Sewing Stitching or sewing is done after the cut pieces are bundled according to size, colour and quantities determined by the sewing room.Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia. Process control. Quality data acquisition and analysis. Appraisal Costs: Inspection and test of incoming material. Product inspection and test.
Material and services consumed. Maintaining accuracy of test equipment. It means customer needs is to be satisfied. Quality is of prime importance in any aspect of business.
Customers demand and expect value for money. As producers of apparel there must be a constant endeavor to produce work of good quality. In previous article, I discuss about quality control system in garment industry. Most threads are made by plying and twisting yarns. A wide variety of thread types are in use today, e.
Sew ability 3. Imperfection 4. Thread finish 5. Thread color 6. Package Density 7. Winding 8. Yardage Quality Control in Zipper: A zipper, zip, or zip fastener, is a commonly used device for temporarily joining two edges of fabric. It is used in clothing e. Zipper Following Factors are Considered in Zipper: Proper dimension of zipper The top and bottom end should correctly sewn The tape and color of zipper should be uniform Slider has to be locked properly The slider should move properly Quality Control System: On- line quality control system Off line quality control system On Line Quality C ontrol System: This type of quality control is carried out without stopping the production process.Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion.
He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia. Textile Manufacturing Process: Clothing is the basic human need. For hiding shame and also protecting from the inclemency of weather clothing is essential for human being. Clothing is the final product of textile manufacturing.
Textile manufacturing or production is a very complex process. The range of textile manufacturing is so long. It starts from fiber to finished products. This is the basic and primary flowchart of textile manufacturing. In this article I will give flow chart of all branches of textile engineering like as spinning, weaving, dyeing, printing, finishing and garment manufacturing. You can also like: Flow Chart of Textile Engineering. Flow Chart of Spinning.
Sharing Knowledge: Students, teachers and professionals can publish your article here. It is a platform to express your knowledge throughout the world. For details: Submit Article. Editor-in-Chief: Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion.
Previous Newer Post. Next Older Post. Fig: Textile manufacturing process.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Apparatus Tensile strength is the most important property of a fabric. In almost every fabric development and manufacturing, tensile properties are reported. Modulus, breaking strength and elongation at break are widely used for quality control. A tensile testing machine working on one of the following principles is used.
There are different types of fabric tensile tests that are used depending on the fabric and purpose: strip tensile test, grab tensile test and wide width tensile test.
The jaws of the tensile testing machine, which are wider than the fabric sample, clamp the sample on both ends and a tensile load is applied until fabric breaks. ASTM D for geotextiles. Narrow fabrics such as webbings, ribbons, etc. Test at least five warps way and five weft way test specimens. As far as possible, only one test specimen shall be drawn from a piece in the test sample. Incase the lot size is small, more than one test specimen may be drawn from a piece in the test sample."Webs of Knowledge: Untangling Textile Production in Ancient Greece"
Calculations 1. Calculate the mean breaking load separately for warp way and weft way test specimens. Method For the purpose of the test method, the following definitions shall be used. Stiffness: Resistance of the fabric to bending.
The textile process
Flexural Rigidity: This quantity is the measure of the resistance of cloth to bending by external forces. It is related to the quality of stiffness that is, the cloth having a high flexural rigidity tends to feel stiff. Bending Length: Bending length equals half the length of a rectangular strip of fabric that will bend under its own weight to an angle of
- emacs remove non ascii characters
- eso weekly trial rotation
- amazon music launched- free ad supported music to all devices
- reportviewer print without printdialog
- garde dejt
- make me hallucinate
- xr500 firewall settings
- f5 syslog configuration
- us top 100
- redmi 6 pattern unlock umt
- azure storage logs
- jpj plate number